60 Objekte
(RM) 401024627
WAR FOR AFGHANISTAN 1998-2018
A group of internally displaced persons who, having spent their last resources fleeing the drought in Badghis Province in the north-west and travelling to Herat, wait in the desert to be allowed into the ICRC-run Maslak Camp. Herat, Afghanistan. 2 April 2001...To facilitate a report on the drought that had affected the entire north-west of the country, the Taliban leadership in Kandahar agreed that, contrary to its normal policy, I should be allowed to photograph those in distress...When Afghanistan endured its worst drought in thirty years, four million people were forced to leave their homes. The cumulative effect of three rainless years, the extreme cold of the previous winter, and the war in the north-east had made a humanitarian disaster inevitable. The Taliban leadership and World Food Program repeatedly asked the international community for help. But with its refusal to extradite Osama bin Laden, the Taliban regime effectively sealed the Emirate of Afghanistan's isolation. One consequence of the UN sanctions against it was a ban on Ariana flights, which in turn impeded the transport of relief goods and desperately needed medical supplies. While the sanctions forbade members of the international community, the EU and ASEAN from providing any help at all, economic or military, the Northern Alliance, the Taliban's opponent, continued to enjoy the support of Russia and Iran. ..The overland journey through what became the world's top outlaw state, so impoverished that it no longer even features in UN statistics, led from Kandahar to camps in Herat, across the Sabzak Pass into Badghis Province, deep into Murghab Canyon and to encounters with those who, having lost livestock and seeds, were stranded in caves without hope of escape. There they subsisted on what would normally be camel fodder.. (KEYSTONE/VII Photo/Daniel Schwartz)
(RM) 401025217
WAR FOR AFGHANISTAN 1998-2018
Recruits of the Afghanistan National Army (ANA) check the results of their target practice, overseen by ISAF (International Security Assistance Force). The helmets are a donation from the Polish Armed Forces. Near Kabul, Afghanistan. 28 November 2006...The history of the ANA goes back to the early and mid-18th century when Afghanistan emerged as a country under the Hotaka and the Durrani dynasties. The latter's enduring achievement was to emancipate Afghanistan from its role as a crossroads for conquest or as a patchwork of provinces making up the borderlands of greater powers. These had had little idea of how loosely the tribes of the Hindu Kush were connected, but now had to accept Afghanistan claiming its place as a nation, albeit it one composed of several ethnicities. With that claim came the struggle to maintain quasi-national independence vis-à-vis the empires of the new world in the making, despite the country's own violent internal disunity...Reorganized in 1880 under Emir Abdur Rahman, Afghanistan's forces were not involved in either world war, as the country remained neutral in both. After the resignation of President Najibullah in 1992, the Islamic State of Afghanistan took over the army, which since the 1960s had been equipped by the Soviet Union. In 1995 the Taliban's Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan took control of the army, which it held until its retreat in October 2001 following the launch of the U.S. bombing campaign and invasion. At the same time, private armies loyal to local warlords became increasingly influential. ..On 7 October 2001, President George W. Bush authorized “Operation Enduring Freedom” and its strikes on Al-Qaeda training camps and Taliban military installations. Thus began a predictably protracted involvement—given the history of earlier invasions—one cornerstone of which would be the development of the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF). ..On 1 December 2001 the present-day ANA was founded by presidential decree (KEYSTONE/VII Photo/Daniel Schwartz)
(RM) 401024982
WAR FOR AFGHANISTAN 1998-2018
Macedonian ISAF soldiers on patrol on Bibi Mehro Hill. Wazir Akbar Khan, Kabul, Afghanistan. 29 November 2006. ..The hill is also known as “Swimming Pool Hill” after the pool built by the Soviets, later used by the Taliban as an execution ground...Established in December 2001 by UN Security Council resolution 1368 for the primary purpose of training the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) and enabling Afghanistan to rebuild key government institutions, the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was soon obliged to expand its mission to secure Kabul and its hinterland from the Taliban and Al-Qaeda beyond the capital and to engage in combat operations to both the south and east. ..Some of the ISAF countries that contributed to “Operation Enduring Freedom-Afghanistan” had to act subject to national caveats, meaning that trainers could not be deployed throughout the country. ..By 2008 at the latest it had become evident that the NATO coalition's military presence, consisting of troops from 41 countries, was not the solution but part of the problem. Even stranger than the fact that NATO—the North Atlantic Treaty Organization established as part of the post-WWII world order in 1949—was supposedly defending itself in a faraway landlocked country was the involvement in its campaign of nations like El Salvador on the Pacific and Singapore on the shores of the South China Sea. ..ISAF was disbanded in 2014, contributing only some advisory troops to the successor organization, Resolute Support Mission.. (KEYSTONE/VII Photo/Daniel Schwartz)
(RM) 401025637
WAR FOR AFGHANISTAN 1998-2018
A guard clad in a shepherd's felt cape stands on sacks of flour destined for the drought victims left behind in the caves of Murghab Canyon. Regi, Badghis Province. 30 March 2001...To facilitate a report on the drought that had affected the entire north-west of the country, the Taliban leadership in Kandahar agreed that, contrary to its normal policy, I should be allowed to photograph those in distress...When Afghanistan endured its worst drought in thirty years, four million people were forced to leave their homes. The cumulative effect of three rainless years, the extreme cold of the previous winter, and the war in the north-east had made a humanitarian disaster inevitable. The Taliban leadership and World Food Program repeatedly asked the international community for help. But with its refusal to extradite Osama bin Laden, the Taliban regime effectively sealed the Emirate of Afghanistan's isolation. One consequence of the UN sanctions against it was a ban on Ariana flights, which in turn impeded the transport of relief goods and desperately needed medical supplies. While the sanctions forbade members of the international community, the EU and ASEAN from providing any help at all, economic or military, the Northern Alliance, the Taliban's opponent, continued to enjoy the support of Russia and Iran. ..The overland journey through what became the world's top outlaw state, so impoverished that it no longer even features in UN statistics, led from Kandahar to camps in Herat, across the Sabzak Pass into Badghis province, deep into Murghab Canyon and to encounters with those who, having lost livestock and seeds, were stranded in caves without hope of escape. There they subsisted on what would normally be camel fodder.. (KEYSTONE/VII Photo/Daniel Schwartz)
(RM) 401025442
WAR FOR AFGHANISTAN 1998-2018
After three rainless years and the worst drought in thirty years which had forced four million people to leave their homes, the reservoir behind the Dahla Dam was almost completely parched. Arghandab, Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. 23 March 2001...Riding in the truck approaching us was a group of Taliban who had gone to shoot ducks. They did not allow us to see the wreckage of a Soviet helicopter gunship and the scattered bones of the crew that had been found a month before...The gunship must have been downed during the Arghandab Offensive in May-June 1987, when patrols flew patterns along the 15–20-km-long and 7-km-wide “Green Zone” bordering the north bank of the river...Intersected by a dense network of canals and vineyards and used by the Mujahideen to construct organized defenses, including houses, adobe forts, walls and pomegranate-orchard earth works, this zone—sometimes called the “Bread Basket of Afghanistan” and the country's second major opium farm after Helmand—confronted U.S. troops and their coalition allies with exactly the same challenges in the 21st century...The 55-meter-high Dahla Dam, an embankment made of earth and rock fill supplemented by six saddle dams, was built by the Americans between 1950 and 1952 as the primary source of irrigation for Kandahar Province. ..During the Soviet occupation the Arghandab irrigation system fell into decay and the reservoir was left to silt up. ..The infrastructure was repaired with Canadian assistance between 2009 and 2012, after the rocky areas of the dam had been cleared of mines by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The planned raising of the dam that it initiated and that was seen as crucial to increasing the available water volumes was subsequently abandoned due to financial issues...When built, the Dahla Dam and the irrigation system below it were under the control of the Helmand and Arghandab Valley Authority. Modelled on the Tennessee Valley Authority, this implanted what the historian Arnold Toynbee i (KEYSTONE/VII Photo/Daniel Schwartz)
(RM) 401026307
WAR FOR AFGHANISTAN 1998-2018
The Shebargan gas pipeline after a night-time attack and with carcasses of Soviet APCs. The pipeline also bears witness to how children experience and depict decades of war. Between Mazar-e-Sharif and Balkh, Afghanistan. 17 October, 2001...Exploitation of Afghanistan's fossil resources began in 1967 on the Khowaja gas field east of Shebergan...It was there that the former Uzbek warlord, Abdul Rashid Dostum, who still holds power in Kabul and has a long history of siding with winners during every phase of Afghanistan's long-drawn-out war, started his political and military career. The pipeline to Mazar-e-Sharif would serve Dostum as one of several lifelines. ..In the mid-1990s, when the “New Great Game” for oil was being played out in Afghanistan, among the many pipedreams being dreamt were those of the Argentinian company Bridas and the California-based Unocal (with former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger—architect of the covert bombing of Cambodia—as consultant). They saw Afghanistan as the key that would unlock the oil and gas fields of Central Asia and as a transit corridor for pipelines connecting these to the Indian Ocean in Pakistan...Once the Taliban had unified the country (with the exception of the Tajik Panjshir) and routed the warlords responsible for its fragmentation, they resumed the negotiations the two companies from beyond the Atlantic had initiated with Ismael Khan, Dostum, Rabbani, Masud and Niyazov, the communist-style dictator of Turkmenistan...Little was known about the Islamist organization and its reclusive leadership in those days, but there was no doubt that its expansion had geostrategic implications. From an American perspective, “a gas pipeline through Afghanistan was not only attractive because it avoided Iran, but it would signal support to Turkmenistan, Pakistan and the Taliban while clearly snubbing Russia and Iran.” (Ahmed Rashid, Taliban, 2000)..What the foreign managers had tried euphemistically to sell as a “peace-making b (KEYSTONE/VII Photo/Daniel Schwartz)
(RM) 401026142
WAR FOR AFGHANISTAN 1998-2018
The Shebargan gas pipeline after a night-time attack and with carcasses of Soviet APCs. The pipeline also bears witness to how children experience and depict decades of war. Between Mazar-e-Sharif and Balkh, Afghanistan. 17 October, 2001...Exploitation of Afghanistan's fossil resources began in 1967 on the Khowaja gas field east of Shebergan...It was there that the former Uzbek warlord, Abdul Rashid Dostum, who still holds power in Kabul and has a long history of siding with winners during every phase of Afghanistan's long-drawn-out war, started his political and military career. The pipeline to Mazar-e-Sharif would serve Dostum as one of several lifelines. ..In the mid-1990s, when the “New Great Game” for oil was being played out in Afghanistan, among the many pipedreams being dreamt were those of the Argentinian company Bridas and the California-based Unocal (with former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger—architect of the covert bombing of Cambodia—as consultant). They saw Afghanistan as the key that would unlock the oil and gas fields of Central Asia and as a transit corridor for pipelines connecting these to the Indian Ocean in Pakistan...Once the Taliban had unified the country (with the exception of the Tajik Panjshir) and routed the warlords responsible for its fragmentation, they resumed the negotiations the two companies from beyond the Atlantic had initiated with Ismael Khan, Dostum, Rabbani, Masud and Niyazov, the communist-style dictator of Turkmenistan...Little was known about the Islamist organization and its reclusive leadership in those days, but there was no doubt that its expansion had geostrategic implications. From an American perspective, “a gas pipeline through Afghanistan was not only attractive because it avoided Iran, but it would signal support to Turkmenistan, Pakistan and the Taliban while clearly snubbing Russia and Iran.” (Ahmed Rashid, Taliban, 2000)..What the foreign managers had tried euphemistically to sell as a “peace-making b (KEYSTONE/VII Photo/Daniel Schwartz)
(RM) 401025377
WAR FOR AFGHANISTAN 1998-2018
The Shebargan gas pipeline after a night-time attack and with carcasses of Soviet APCs. The pipeline also bears witness to how children experience and depict decades of war. Between Mazar-e-Sharif and Balkh, Afghanistan. 17 October, 2001...Exploitation of Afghanistan's fossil resources began in 1967 on the Khowaja gas field east of Shebergan...It was there that the former Uzbek warlord, Abdul Rashid Dostum, who still holds power in Kabul and has a long history of siding with winners during every phase of Afghanistan's long-drawn-out war, started his political and military career. The pipeline to Mazar-e-Sharif would serve Dostum as one of several lifelines. ..In the mid-1990s, when the “New Great Game” for oil was being played out in Afghanistan, among the many pipedreams being dreamt were those of the Argentinian company Bridas and the California-based Unocal (with former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger—architect of the covert bombing of Cambodia—as consultant). They saw Afghanistan as the key that would unlock the oil and gas fields of Central Asia and as a transit corridor for pipelines connecting these to the Indian Ocean in Pakistan...Once the Taliban had unified the country (with the exception of the Tajik Panjshir) and routed the warlords responsible for its fragmentation, they resumed the negotiations the two companies from beyond the Atlantic had initiated with Ismael Khan, Dostum, Rabbani, Masud and Niyazov, the communist-style dictator of Turkmenistan...Little was known about the Islamist organization and its reclusive leadership in those days, but there was no doubt that its expansion had geostrategic implications. From an American perspective, “a gas pipeline through Afghanistan was not only attractive because it avoided Iran, but it would signal support to Turkmenistan, Pakistan and the Taliban while clearly snubbing Russia and Iran.” (Ahmed Rashid, Taliban, 2000)..What the foreign managers had tried euphemistically to sell as a “peace-making b (KEYSTONE/VII Photo/Daniel Schwartz)
(RM) 401024612
WAR FOR AFGHANISTAN 1998-2018
A sandstorm obscures the ruins of Bost, Lashkargah, Afghanistan. 26 March 2001...The Ghaznavid winter capital of Bost prospered from the mid-11th century to the mid-12th century. It was looted by the Ghorids from what is today north-western Afghanistan and was completely razed by Ghengis Khan's cavalry in 1220...Ancient Bost, or Qala-e-Bost, was taken by early Arab conquerors around 661 (40/41 after Hijrah). The Arab traveller Ibn Haukal has left us the following description of it: “The inhabitants of Bost are polite and generous, resembling in dress and manners the people of Iraq. It is a city well supplied with provisions, fruits, and dates. They trade from the city with Hindustan.”..The Arabs' control of Bost as a stronghold from which to take the regions of Kandahar and Kabul was tenuous and intermittent as they were constantly defeated by local tribes. ..History would repeat itself in post-9/11 Afghanistan, when nearby Lashkargah, Bost's successor town and the capital of Helmand, became the epicenter of the coalition forces' bloody struggle in the south. Of the ca. 3,500 coalition casualties since the 2001 invasion, the vast majority have been Americans, British and Canadians assigned responsibility for the flashpoint province south of Kandahar...Lashkargah remains volatile to this day. A twin blast at an agricultural show killed four and wounded thirty as recently as 23 March 2019. . (KEYSTONE/VII Photo/Daniel Schwartz)
(RMc) 401024147
WAR FOR AFGHANISTAN 1998-2018
A scene of confusion at the Afghan National Army training camp on Jalalabad Road. Kabul, Afghanistan. 28 November 2006...The lack of properly prepared and readily available plans for operations in Afghanistan after 9/11 was to have fatal consequences for America. Being the first on the ground, CIA operators began by leveraging intelligence assets and personal relationships with anti-Taliban militias, mainly the Northern Alliance, and entered into partnerships that ultimately undermined the creation and role of the ANA and Afghan National Police (ANP)...What follows are some of the lessons learned and discussed by John F. Sopko, Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) in “Reconstructing the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces. Lessons from the U.S. Experience in Afghanistan,” September 2017...Eventually, “the 2002 division of security sector reform into the five independent silos of military reform (U.S.), police reform (Germany), judicial reform (Italy), counter-narcotics (U.K.), and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (Japan) undermined each individual program's success as the process lacked the required coordination and synchronization effort.” ..As senior U.S. and NATO officials took ownership of the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF), little input came from senior Afghan officials. “The lack of Afghan ownership of force development, operational planning, and security sector governance prevented the Afghans from effectively overseeing and managing the ANDSF following the security transition at the end of 2014.” ..“The United States largely ignored the transitional security forces operating throughout Afghanistan, as well as the political imbalances throughout the rank-and-file that were eroding security, both of which were often supported by host-nation elites. As a result, major social and political imbalances remain with the ANDSF to this day.” ..“Western advisers are likely to step in to perform jobs (KEYSTONE/VII Photo/Daniel Schwartz)
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