324 Objekte
(RM) 147079038
A MILLION SHILLINGS
BOSASSO, SOMALIA- JANUARY 2007.Watching over a group of refugees at one of his network's safe houses hidden deep in Bossaso townÕs back streets, thirty-four year old Òbig fishÓ smuggler Omar lights a cigarette.Working at sea since he was a teenager, Omar spent years helping local fishermen to hunt down sharks for their fins but illegal commercial fishing put an end to the business. He involved himself instead in the arms trade, ferrying weapons to and from Yemen. War in Somalia provided him with new financial rewards however when Bossaso became the countryÕs hub in human trafficking, as more and more people began to flee the brutal fighting while warlords tore the country apart.The financial rewards for him are the main draw. He now makes a minimum of $5000 per month ferrying migrants and refugees across the Gulf of Aden to Yemen; far in excess of the average income of just $100 a month in Somalia.Omar may be a big fish in Bossaso but he is just part of a bigger countrywide chain. His unnamed network has offices in Mogadishu, Belet Weyne and Galkayo in southern Somalia, and Burao on the Ethiopian border. ÒThese tahrib pay $20 to one of our offices before making their own way here- a receipt then guides them to me when they get here and I charge $50 to get them to Yemen but then the boat owners and agents take commission, and of course we have to pay off the authoritiesÓ.Omar is just one of eight key smugglers working in Bossaso linked to an international network of agents and traffickers. He shrugs off the violence and death perpetrated at the hands of his men. When he looks at the forty migrants in his charge waiting to board boats to Yemen that night he calls them Òblood moneyÓ. (KEYSTONE/NOOR/Alixandra Fazzina)
(RM) 147079087
A MILLION SHILLINGS
BIR ALI, YEMEN- MAY 2007.Having arrived in the middle of the night following a fifty-seven hour long voyage from Somalia, dawn breaks over a group of Ethiopian migrants and refugees at a sandy beach near Bir Ali on YemenÕs southern coast. A pair of tiny fishing boats sailing close together brought a total of two hundred and fifty-three tahrib within sight of land but coming under fire from Yemeni soldiers, quickly turned around and headed back out into deep waters. Returning the following night for a second attempt at offloading their human cargo, smugglers demanded extra money from passengers if they wanted to be dropped close to shore. Despite being unable to swim, most were thrown overboard two kilometres out at sea as they protested. At least thirty passengers are estimated to have drowned. Only twenty-three of the bodies were ever found.Separated by nationality on arrival, the Somali refugees were first counted and taken away for processing at a nearby reception centre just a couple of hours after setting foot on the beach. The Ethiopians who remain behind have not been so lucky. Despite being severely traumatised and dehydrated, soldiers have detained the exhausted group, fearing that unlike the Somalis who have the automatic right to asylum, they might try to escape. It took fifteen hours before they were finally allowed to proceed to the centre and receive the water, food and medical attention they so badly needed. Most havenÕt eaten or had access to drinking water for a long time now, having spent days at beaches waiting to depart from Somalia. Others are just in a state of shock. Having been beaten and robbed by smugglers during the voyage, they must now proceed on their journey into Yemen knowing that their friends and relatives are unaccounted for. (KEYSTONE/NOOR/Alixandra Fazzina)
(RM) 147079293
A MILLION SHILLINGS
BASATINE, YEMEN- MARCH 2008.Salima is nineteen and is wearing red lipstick but the clothes she has on are not her own. She doesnÕt like them and appears very bashful- or ÒshyingÓ as she puts it.Along the rubbish-strewn lanes of Basatine, her temporary home is a cramped, dark room in a safe house controlled by trafficking gangs. There are four such clandestine houses hidden in this shantytown, sending young Somali men and women on to Saudi Arabia, where they hope to find work and a better life. Having fled the ongoing violence the plagues their homeland, they are now free to stay with the human traffickers until they find the $25 that they need to be driven into the desert. Here it can take weeks here to save that kind of money.Salima has been going begging. Living the last three weeks in a daze, she returns from the city each evening to sleep on a threadbare mattress. If she is late, she passes out on the bare floor surrounded by twenty other women who share this makeshift room knocked together from thin plywood sheeting. Lately the rain has been seeping in. Far from home and without any other choice, this is all there is. She looks totally drained. The last six weeks of her life have been a nightmare.From a generation that has known nothing but war, Salima grew up in Mogadishu but despite the risks, she was determined to stay. Along with her baby boy Abdi Sallam and the husband she adored, the family stuck together in their little two-storey house. ÒIt was our home. My favourite place in the worldÓ. And besides, Salima was pregnant again.One morning, undeterred by the sound of gunfire in the distance, Salima popped out to buy some bread for the familyÕs breakfast. A man walking ahead of her fell to the ground, hit by a stray bullet. Rushing over to the wounded stranger, the screech of a Hound rocket sent her crashing to the ground. Mortars had pierced the upper floor of her home. ÒI found my husband and child but they were not with us anymoreÓ. Both had been killed (KEYSTONE/NOOR/Alixandra Fazzina)
(RM) 147079527
A MILLION SHILLINGS
ADEN, YEMEN- APRIL 2008.Having been transferred from a small bus, a group of Somali refugees are packed tightly into a waiting Landcruiser at a remote desert rendezvous. Inside the back of the vehicle, a dozen men must now spend the next ten hours sitting almost one on top of the other, while five women clad in Yemeni abayas occupy the passenger seats. Carrying nothing but plastic bottles and jerry cans of water, they are leaving with smugglers for Saudi Arabia.For the economic migrants, Saudi has always been their ultimate goal but thousands of refugees escaping war or persecution in Somalia and Ethiopia quickly become disillusioned with Yemen and join their ranks each year. Restricted in their ability to work legally and unprepared for the bitter life they find in this already poverty stricken country, they simply keep moving in search of their dream of a better future. With their former lives far behind them and having survived the journey this far, they have little left to lose.Costing just $25 to the Saudi border, the overland journey ahead is not an easy one. If they can reach the frontier without being captured, then a walk of more than twenty hours through blisteringly hot sands lies ahead. Many are said to disappear in the isolated dunes becoming disorientated or succumbing to exhaustion. If they do make it, then their prospects are little more than badly paid hard labour or enslaved work behind closed doors. Unlike in Yemen, they do not have the automatic right to asylum and the Saudi authorities regularly round up and imprison large groups. The bigger gamble is that they risk deportation back to the very place they started out from. (KEYSTONE/NOOR/Alixandra Fazzina)
(RM) 147079563
A MILLION SHILLINGS
HAZYEZ, YEMEN- MAY 2008.Seven year old Sara is known locally as Òthe white girlÓ. She lives with her adopted Somali mother Nasrin in a brothel at Hazyez; a popular rest stop for truck drivers heading out of SanaÕa on the Aden road. Sara will never know about her real mother Fatima, and the prostitutes with whom she stays donÕt talk about her out loud for fear that Sara might become upset if she ever hears the truth.Fleeing to Somalia nearly ten years ago as teenagers, friends Nasrin and Fatima were lured by a gang who were soon hustling them in and around AdenÕs dockyards and in the seedy bars that come and go near the port. For the young girls it was a shameful life but they were scared, far away from home and penniless. Nasrin eventually moved on but around three years later received a message- Fatima had died and there was a baby. Nobody is quite sure what happened but rumours abounded that Fatima has been sick with HIV/ Aids- the babyÕs father was said to have been an Italian sailor who had been seeing her regularly. Still considering the friend that she made the dangerous journey from Somalia with as almost family, Nasrin took it upon herself to informally adopt the little girl called Sara.Bringing up Sara has been tough for Nasrin. As a refugee with a half-caste child they are often looked upon as freaks, and so she keeps Sara indoors as much as she can. The local youths have been abusive and she thinks it could be damaging for Sara in the long term. Inside the brothel however, Sara is completely adored and hates to be apart from her adoptive mother and the close-knit group of girls who work from the small bungalow. She loves dressing up, and when Nasrin gets ready for work in the evening, she puts on make-up too, pouting and making provocative movements with her hips. As the mobile phone keeps ringing with potential customers, Sara puts on a mask of her motherÕs face she has made by cutting out a photograph. She looks at the picture, kisses it and says, ÒI lo (KEYSTONE/NOOR/Alixandra Fazzina)
(RM) 147079578
A MILLION SHILLINGS
BIR ALI, YEMEN- MAY 2007.Having arrived in the middle of the night following a fifty-seven hour long voyage from Somalia, dawn breaks over a group of Ethiopian migrants and refugees at a sandy beach near Bir Ali on YemenÕs southern coast. A pair of tiny fishing boats sailing close together brought a total of two hundred and fifty-three tahrib within sight of land but coming under fire from Yemeni soldiers, quickly turned around and headed back out into deep waters. Returning the following night for a second attempt at offloading their human cargo, smugglers demanded extra money from passengers if they wanted to be dropped close to shore. Despite being unable to swim, most were thrown overboard two kilometres out at sea as they protested. At least thirty passengers are estimated to have drowned. Only twenty-three of the bodies were ever found.Separated by nationality on arrival, the Somali refugees were first counted and taken away for processing at a nearby reception centre just a couple of hours after setting foot on the beach. The Ethiopians who remain behind have not been so lucky. Despite being severely traumatised and dehydrated, soldiers have detained the exhausted group, fearing that unlike the Somalis who have the automatic right to asylum, they might try to escape. It took fifteen hours before they were finally allowed to proceed to the centre and receive the water, food and medical attention they so badly needed. Most havenÕt eaten or had access to drinking water for a long time now, having spent days at beaches waiting to depart from Somalia. Others are just in a state of shock. Having been beaten and robbed by smugglers during the voyage, they must now proceed on their journey into Yemen knowing that their friends and relatives are unaccounted for. (KEYSTONE/NOOR/Alixandra Fazzina)
von 4